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Test #6 Review:  Chapters 11 & 13

Instructions:  Try to answer the open-ended questions below.  They include all information and vocabulary necessary for your test.  All information can be found in your notes, if you get stuck.

  1. According to the experts, how many definitions for "death" are there?

  2. What are the most widely excepted definitions for death?

  3. How many terms are there regarding "manner of death?"

  4. List the terms for manner of death.

  5. Define and provide examples for each of the terms for manner of death.

  6. Define "cause of death."

  7. Define "mechanism of death."

  8. If a mans was robbed at gunpoint, gets shot and bleeds to death, what is the manner of death?

  9. If a mans was robbed at gunpoint, gets shot and bleeds to death, what is the cause of death?

  10. If a mans was robbed at gunpoint, gets shot and bleeds to death, what is the mechanism of death?

  11. What is the manner of death if man with a heart condition is attacked and dies from a heart attack during the attack?

  12. What is the manner of death if an elderly woman dies after being kept from receiving proper health care by her children?

  13. How many bones are there in the adult human body?

  14. What are "ligaments" and what do they do?

  15. What are "tendons" and what do they do?

  16. What are "osteoblasts" and what do they do?

  17. What are "osteoclasts" and what do they do?

  18. What are the differences between the skull on a male skeleton compared to the skull of a female skeleton?

  19. What are the differences between the pelvis on a male skeleton compared to the pelvis of a female skeleton?

  20. What are the differences between the rib cage on a male skeleton compared to the rib cage of a female skeleton?

  21. What is "mitochondrial DNA?"

  22. Where can mitochondrial DNA be found?

  23. How is mitochondrial DNA used?

  24. Which parent is mitochondrial DNA inherited from?

  25. What does "livor mortis" mean?

  26. What is "lividity?"

  27. Why does livor mortis occur?

  28. When does lvidity first begin?

  29. How long until the lividity is fixed?

  30. What factors speed up livor mortis?

  31. What factors slow down livor mortis?

  32. What is "rigor mortis?"

  33. Why does livor mortis occur?

  34. How does rigor mortis present itself?

  35. How long until rigor mortis is first seen?

  36. How long until rigor mortis is last seen?

  37. What are the stages of rigor mortis?

  38. How long until each stage of rigor mortis is seen?

  39. How long does each stage last?

  40. What is the pattern that rigor mortis usually follows (under normal conditions) during the rigid stage?

  41. What is the pattern that rigor mortis usually follows (under normal conditions) during the flaccid stage?

  42. What factors speed up rigor mortis?

  43. What factors slow down rigor mortis?

  44. What does "algor mortis" mean?

  45. Why does algor mortis occur?

  46. What is the basic formula to calculate time of death using algor mortis?

  47. What factors speed up algor mortis?

  48. What factors slow down algor mortis?

  49. How is a corpse's temperature usually taken by a forensic investigator to determine algor mortis?

  50. What is the "vitreous humor," and how does it relate to finding the time of death?

  51. What factors affect the changes in the eye after death?

  52. How long do the changes in the eye after death take?

  53. How long does it typically take for the stomach to empty?

  54. How long does it typically take for the small intestines to empty?

  55. How long does it typically take for the colon to empty?

  56. What factors speed up the rate of digestion?

  57. What factors slow down the rate of digestion?

  58. What is "autolysis?"

  59. Where does autolysis occur?

  60. What is putrefaction?

  61. Where does putrefaction start?

  62. What are the stages of putrefaction, and how long does it take to see the first signs of this stage?

  63. What factors speed up the rate of putrefaction?

  64. What factors slow down the rate of putrefaction?

  65. What is "mummification?"

  66. When does mummification occur?

  67. What factors speed up the rate of mummification?

  68. What factors slow down the rate of mummification?

  69. Where (what type of climate) would mummification be most likely to occur?

  70. What does "desiccation" mean?

  71. What is "adipocere formation?"

  72. When does adipocere formation occur?

  73. What factors speed up the rate of adipocere formation?

  74. What factors slow down the rate of adipocere formation?

  75. Where (what type of climate and time of year) would mummification be most likely to occur?

  76. What is "skeletonization?"

  77. When does skeletonization occur?

  78. What factors speed up the rate of skeletonization?

  79. What factors slow down the rate of skeletonization?

  80. If someone is dumped into water after death, or someone dies in the water, what will happen to the body over time?

  81. What factors affect the rate at which a body will start to float?

  82. How long will it take for a body to float in a warm body of water?

  83. How long will it take for a body to float in a cold body of water?

  84. How long will it take for a body to float in a temperate body of water?

  85. What is an entomologist, and how do they help to find an estimated time of death?

  86. What are the seven stages of an insect's life (such as the blow fly)?

  87. What is the range of possible heights for an American Caucasian male whose ulna is 28.55 cm long?

  88. What is the range of possible statures for an African-American female whose fibula is 36.79 cm long?